With the rise of horizontal integration in newspaper industries, including both digital and print publications, there is a significant decline in local daily newspapers over the last few decades. For example, in the UK, two-thirds of local authority districts lack a daily newspaper and about 77% local newspaper titles are owned by the big five local newspaper publishers; over 50% national UK papers sold are controlled by two billionaires, Jonathan Harmsworth and Rupert Murdoch (Media Reform Coalition, 2019). Similarly, the media cross-ownership in America is controlled by a few giant companies, which usually causes one single narrative about current news events in America, no matter local or national newspapers (Ali & Radcliffe, 2017). Another challenge for local newspaper outlets is the proliferation of social media use, and an increasing population has consumed their news on mobile devices through social media over the last few years. Many small-market local newspapers either change their business or move their print newspaper to the digital platform, website, application, and social media (Ali & Radcliffe, 2017). Such changes not only affect the audience’s knowledge and attitude about local news events but also influence the audience group concerning media effects.

Keyword: local newspaper, social media use, cross-ownership